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Exploitation of the Microsoft on premise Exchange vulnerabilities (announced March 2nd, 2021) is more widespread than previously reported. eSentire has observed reports of multiple APT groups exploiting these vulnerabilities in attack campaigns. Attacks targeting these vulnerabilities have been ongoing since at least January 2021. It is critical that Microsoft Exchange Server versions 2010, 2013, 2016, and 2019 are updated. All vulnerable servers are at a high risk of exploitation by advanced threat actor groups. Because exploitation occurred prior to patch release, internet-exposed Microsoft Exchange servers should be reviewed for any evidence of exploitation.
What we’re doing about it
What you should do about it
The eSentire Threat Intelligence team has observed reports which indicate more widespread exploitation of these vulnerabilities than initially believed. Customers are strongly advised to prioritize patching vulnerable Exchange servers exposed to the Internet. Additionally, customers are advised to work with the eSentire SOC to review these systems and remediate any identified threats resulting from these vulnerabilities.
eSentire teams are actively developing detection for this threat and performing retroactive queries across our customers in parallel. eSentire recommends customers ensure eSentire services are monitoring impacted systems and, out of an abundance of caution, review on-premise Exchange servers for evidence of exploitation per Microsoft’s guidance (Microsoft has automated these checks with the PowerShell script available here). Customers should coordinate with eSentire’s SOC on any positive identification from these activities.
Confirmed vulnerable on-premises Microsoft Exchange Servers:
Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 has reached End of Life (EoL) status but received emergency patches. Organizations are strongly recommended to discontinue the use of all EoL products in favor of actively supported alternatives.
CVE-2021-26855 (CVSS Score: 9.1/10) – Is a server-side request forgery (SSRF) vulnerability in Microsoft Exchange, which allows a threat actor to send an arbitrary HTTP request and authenticate as the Exchange server.
CVE-2021-26857 (CVSS Score: 7.8/10) – Is an insecure deserialization vulnerability in the Unified Messaging service and requires administrator privileges or the use of another vulnerability to exploit. This vulnerability gave HAFNIUM the controls to run code as SYSTEM on an exchange server.
CVE-2021-26858 / CVE-2021-27065 (CVSS Score: 7.8/10) – Are post-authentication arbitrary file write vulnerabilities in Microsoft Exchange and require either compromising an admin’s credentials or the use of CVE-2021-26855.
According to public reports, at least four separate APT groups have been confirmed to have exploited these vulnerabilities. Known threat actor groups include Hafnium, APT27 (ie. LuckyMouse), Tick (ie. Bronze Butler), and Calypso. The majority of victims are located in the United States, but limited activity was identified in 21 other countries. Specific victim details and attacker goals are currently not known. eSentire security teams will continue to track this event going forward.